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题文
Play allows children to use their creativity while developing their imagination and physical, cognitive (认知的), and emotional strength. Play is important to healthy brain development. Play allows children to create and explore a world they can master, conquering their fears while practicing adult roles. Undirected play allows children to learn how to work in groups, to share, to negotiate, and to resolve conflicts.
Ideally, much of play involves adults, but when play is controlled by adults, children acquiesce (顺从) to adult rules and concerns and lose some of the benefits play offers them, particularly in developing creativity, leadership, and group skills. In contrast to passive entertainment, play builds active, healthy bodies. In fact, it has been suggested that encouraging unstructured play may be an exceptional way to increase physical activity levels in children, which is one important strategy in the resolution of the obesity problem.
Children’s development is critically influenced by appropriate, affective relationships with loving and consistent caregivers as they relate to children through play. When parents observe their children in play or join with them in child-driven play, they are given a unique opportunity to see the world from their children’s vantage point as the child navigates a world perfectly created just to fit his or her needs. The interactions that occur through play tell children that parents are fully paying attention to them and help to build enduring relationships. Parents who have the opportunity to look at their children’s world learn to communicate more effectively with their children and are given another setting to offer guidance. Less verbal children may be able to express their views, giving their parents an opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of their perspective. Quite simply, play offers parents a wonderful opportunity to engage fully with their children.
Play is essential to the academic environment. It ensures that the school setting attends to the social and emotional development of children as well as their cognitive development. It has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting and even to strengthen children’s learning willingness. Social-emotional learning is best integrated (融合) with academic learning; it is concerning if some of the forces that enhance children’s ability to learn are improved at the expense of others. Play and unscheduled time that allow for peer interactions are important components of social-emotional learning.
小题1:Compared with undirected play, play which is controlled by adults ________.
A.doesn’t benefit the children at all
B.doesn’t help develop leadership and group skills
C.makes children become more active
D.helps increase physical activity levels
小题2:The third paragraph mainly tells us that ________.
A.play offers parents a good chance to establish good relationships with children
B.children’s development is greatly influenced by relationships with parents
C.play helps children better express their views
D.play offers parents a unique opportunity to see the world from a different perspective
小题3:From the last paragraph, we know that ________.
A.play can’t help children become adapted to the school setting
B.play makes social-emotional learning and academic learning separated
C.play is beneficial to social-emotional learning as well as academic learning
D.it is necessary to strengthen children’s academic development at the expense of others
小题4:Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A.Undirected play can help children develop team spirit.
B.Play can improve children’s willingness to learn.
C.Play helps adults gain a better understanding of the children’s thoughts.
D.Adults shouldn’t be involved in children’s play.
题型:阅读理解难度:中档来源:不详
答案

小题1:B
小题2:A
小题3:C
小题4:D

试题分析:本文介绍了游戏玩耍在孩子的各项能力的发展培养中很重要,它既可以帮助父母了解孩子的世界,与孩子建立良好关系,还可以提高孩子的社会情感学习能力和学术学习能力。
小题1:细节题,根据第二段中“when play is controlled by adults, children acquiesce (顺从) to adult rules and concerns and lose some of the benefits play offers them, particularly in developing creativity, leadership, and group skills”当游戏是由成年人控制的时候,孩子们会顺从大人的规则和关注点,失去了一部分游戏给他们带来的益处,特别是创造力、领导能力和组织能力的发展。故选B。
小题2:推理题,根据文章第三段最后一句“ Quite simply, play offers parents a wonderful opportunity to engage fully with their children.”非常简单,游戏提供给父母一个能够和孩子全心全意一起玩的好机会。根据常理可知以孩子的角度和孩子一起玩可以增加亲子关系。故选A。
小题3:细节题,根据最后一段中“ It has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting”它已经被证明可以帮助孩子适应学校环境,故A错误;根据最后一段中“ Social-emotional learning is best integrated (融合) with academic learning;”社会情感学习和学术学习是融合在一起的,可知B错误;根据最后一段中“It ensures that the school setting attends to the social and emotional development of children as well as their cognitive development”它能确保在学校环境中孩子的社会情感发展和他们的认知发展一样好。因此C正确;根据最后一段中“it is concerning if some of the forces that enhance children’s ability to learn are improved at the expense of others.”如果牺牲其它能力发展来强迫提高孩子的学习能力,这令人感到担忧,由此可知D错误。故选C。
小题4:细节题,根据第一段中“ Undirected play allows children to learn how to work in groups, to share, to negotiate, and to resolve conflicts.”无指导的游戏可以使孩子们学到如何在团队工作、分享、谈判、解决冲突。由此可知A正确;根据最后一段中“ even to strengthen children’s learning willingness”甚至加强孩子学习意愿,因此B正确;根据第三段中“giving their parents an opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of their perspective”给他们父母一个机会更全面了解他们的观点,由此可知C正确;阅读文章第三段内容可知家长与孩子在一起玩才能更好地了解孩子的思想,和孩子建立紧密的亲子关系,因此D错误。故选D。
据魔方格专家权威分析,试题“Play allows children to use their creativity while developin..”主要考查你对  科教类阅读  等考点的理解。关于这些考点的“档案”如下:
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科教类阅读
考点名称:科教类阅读
  • 科教类阅读的概念:

    科教类阅读主要考查考生对书面语篇的整体领悟能力和接受及处理具体信息的能力。试题的取材,密切联系当前我国和世界经济、科技等方面的变化,有关数据的来源真实可信。

  • 科教类文章阅读技巧:

    一、材料特点:

    这类文章的总体特点是:科技词汇多,句子结构复杂,理论性强,逻辑严谨。具体说来它有以下几个特点: 
    1、文章中词汇的意义比较单一、稳定、简明,不带感情色彩,具有单一性和准确性的特点。这类文章通常不会出现文学英语中采用的排比、比喻、夸张等修辞手法,一词多义的现象也不多见。 
    2、句子结构较复杂,语法分析较困难。为了描述一个客观事物,严密地表达自己的思想,作者经常会使用集多种语法现象于一体的长句。 
    3、常使用被动语态,尤其是一些惯用被动句式。

    二、命题特点:

    科普类阅读的主要命题形式有事实细节题、词义猜测题、推理判断题以及主旨概括题等,其中推理判断题居多。

    三、应对策略:

    1、要想做好科普英语阅读理解题,同学们就要注意平时多读科普知识类文章,学习科普知识,积累常见的科普词汇,从根本上提高科普英语的阅读能力。
    2、要熟悉科普类文章的结构特点。科普类文章一般由标题(Head line),导语(Introduction),背景(Back ground),主体(Main body)和结尾(End)五部分构成。标题是文章中心思想高度而又精辟的概括,但根据历年的高考情况来看,这类阅读理解材料一般不给标题,而要同学们选择标题。导语一般位于整篇文章的首段。背景交待一个事实的起因。主体则对导语概括的事实进行详细叙述,这一部分命题往往最多,因此,阅读时,同学们要把这部分作为重点。结尾往往也是中心思想的概括,并与导语相呼应,命题者常在此要设计一道推理判断题。  
    3、在进行推理判断时,同学们一定要以阅读材料所提供的科学事实为依据,同时所得出的结论还应符合基本的科普常识。

  • 科普类阅读应试策略:

    命题趋势
    阅读理解题主要考查考生对书面语篇的整体领悟能力和接受及处理具体信息的能力。试题的取材,密切联系当前我国和世界经济、科技等方面的变化,有关数据的来源真实可信。因此科普知识类文章是每年的必考题。分析历年的科普类文章我们不难发现以下特点:
    1、文章逻辑性强,条理清楚,语法结构简单,用语通俗。
    2、文章内容注重科技领域的新发现。内容新颖,从而使文章显得陌生,内容抽象复杂。
    3、命题方面注意对具体细节的准确理解和以之为依据的推理判断。
    4、以人们的日常行为或饮食健康入手,探讨利弊,诠释过程,阐述概念。
    应试对策
    许多考生在考试时感到困惑的是:为什么一些没有超越中学语法和词汇范围的篇章,读起来却不能正确理解,或者要花费很多时间才能读懂呢?这种现象的产生与阅读方法有很大的关系。例如,有的考生在考试时一见到文章就立刻开始读,结果读了半天,还不知道短文讲的是什么,试题要求了些什么,结果浪费了大量的时间,而阅读效果并不好。那么,怎样读效果才好呢?任何一种阅读方法或技巧的使用,都是由篇章特点和试题本身的要求决定的,应根据不同的体裁和试题要求采取不同的策略。
    1、浏览。浏览的主要目的就是确定文章的体裁。如果文章属于人物传记、记叙文、故事、科普小品和有关社会文化、文史知识的文章,一般来说,应该先看看文章的试题考查内容,对题目类型做到心中有数,针对不同问题,在通读时有粗有细地去阅读,这样不仅能把握篇章的基本结构和逻辑线索,也能做好有关具体事实信息考查的试题。
    2、挖掘寓意,掌握中心思想,推出结论。任何文章,作者在行文时都有一定的写作目的和主要话题。在通读篇章时应该吃透作者的写作意图,抓住文章的主题句,充分发挥自己的想象力和概括力,作出对中心思想的归纳和结论的推断。
    3、把握篇章结构,利用上下文进行推测。高考中的阅读理解篇章往往是一个较完整的短文,其结构、思想,前后上下连贯统一。考试时应充分利用这一特点推测一些生词、短语在句中的含义,切莫盲目孤立猜测。
    4、综观全篇,前后呼应。这是阅读理解的最后一步,在做完阅读理解题后,要立足于文章整体,再迅速读一遍短文,短文中的问题和答案的设置前后都是相关联的,有着一定的连续性,体现着文章的基本脉络。

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